Mongolia’s climate is very dry with extreme continental temperatures. Humid air from the Atlantic and pacific Oceans are blocked by the huge Central Asian mountain ranges. Although Mongolian winters are long and famously cold, with temperatures dropping as low as -50°C in the far north of the country, summers are generally pleasant. The mean temperature falls below freezing for seven to eight months of the year. For two or three months in summer, the weather is warm and pleasant and relatively hot in the southern Gobi region, where mid summer temperatures peak at around 40 degrees and there is little shade available.
Winter usually lasts from mid-October until April, with the coldest period being between mid-December and the end of February or mid-March when the temperature drops to –20 or -30°C and occasionally even lower. Snow usually falls between mid-October and mid-April. There are some regions, especially in the northwest, where the temperature goes down to –40 to -50°C. In the Gobi it drops to -40°C. Spring, which generally starts in March, is known for its constant dust storms and huge fluctuations in air pressure. The steppe gradually starts to sprout fresh, green pasture and even in the capital, the change is both visible and welcome. Summer evenings in the Western Altai range tend to be cooler and local nomads have to wear warm and heavy clothes. The annual rain fall begins in late July and continues until September. Humidity winter. But in the country the number of sunny days ranges between 220 and 260 a year.
Spring comes after a severe winter, days become longer, and nights shorter. It is the time for snow to melt and for animals to come out from hibernation. All animals and livestock breed while the soil thaws in the warm spring weather. In Mongolia "Khansh neekh" means some animals, which hibernated, awoke from their sleep. Spring is the prosperous season of the year when everybody is calm and relaxed; grass turns green, anemones grow up and nature is covered with its green dress. Beginning in March spring usually lasts about 60 days although it can be as long as 70 days or as short as 45 days in some areas of the country. For people and livestock, it is also a harsh season of the driest and the most windy days although it gets warm in spring, livestock breed and gain their weight; and grass becomes green.
Summer is the warmest season in Mongolia. Generally, precipitation is higher in summer than any time of the year. Rivers and streams are at their fullest in summer. It is the time when pasture, grass and crops grow and livestock gain weight and fat. It is the most pleasant time with abundant dairy products and there are many feasts and holidays of happy people. In Mongolia, summer lasts about 110 days from the end of May until September. July is the warmest month of summer and it is 59° F (15° С) and 68° F (20° С) in mountainous areas of Khangai region, 68° F (20° С) and 77° F (25° С) in the steppes and the highest temperature is between 90° F (32° С) and 95° F (35° С) in Khangai and 104° F (40° С) and 106° F (41° С) in Gobi. Sometimes it reaches 122° F (50° С) in Gobi.
Autumn in Mongolia is the season of transition from the hot and wet summer to the cold and dry winter. There is less rainfall in autumn. Gradually it gets cooler and vegetables and grains are harvested at this time. Pasture and forests become yellow. Flies die and livestock is fat and woolly in preparation for the winter. Autumn is an important season in Mongolia in order to prepare for winter; harvesting the crops, vegetables and fodder; getting ready their cattle barns and sheds; preparing firewood and warming up their homes and so on. Autumn lasts about 60 days from the beginning of September until the early November. In some years, there are many long and sunny days in autumn.
In Mongolia, winter is the most severe, the coldest and longest season. All rivers, lakes, streams and ponds freeze in winter. It snows throughout the country, but not heavily. After making all the necessary preparations for a long winter, herdsmen stay at their winter camps. Winter starts early in November and lasts about 110 days until March. Sometimes it snows in September and November, but the heavy snow usually occurs at the beginning of November. January is the coldest winter month in Mongolia and the mean temperature is 95°F (-35°С) in Khangai mountain regions, 59° F (-15°С) in Gobi and 68°F (-20°С) and 77°F (-25°С) in the other parts of the country. Howevr, 50° F (-10° С) in Europe means 68° F (-20° С) in Mongolia.