Like its vegetation, Mongolia features diverse wildlife species from the Siberian forest, the steppe and desert. Mongolia has 136 mammal species, more than 400 different types of birds, 76 species of fish, 8 amphibians, and 22 reptiles. From the abundance of wolves to the globally endangered snow leopard, there is a myriad of wildlife to track, photograph and hunt.
The central and northern forest area is home to wolf, wild boar, elk, roedeer, and brown bear. Steppe and forest margins support marmot, muskrat, fox, steppe fox, and sable. Western high Altai Mountain boasts a rich wildlife. Apart from common wolf and wild cats, such as lynx and snow leopard, Altai is home to the word’s largest wild sheep-argali and Siberian ibex.
Species endemic to Central Asia are found primary in the Gobi desert and steppe including the Mongolian subspecies of the saiga antelope, four species of jerboa, and a vole. The Gobi desert and the eastern Mongolian steppe and inhabited by thousands of gazelles. The rarest animal in the world-the Gobi bear is found in the south-western part of Gobi. Wild ass and wild camels are abundantly found in the desert while argali and Gobi ibex also inhabit the rocky mountains within the Gobi region.
Takhi kown as Przewalski horse, which in the last remaining true wild horse has been reintroduced to the country from captivity abroad after being unseen for about thirty years in their home country.
Bird life is rich and included the golden eagle, bearded vulture and other birds of prey, while the country’s 2000 lakes are a magnet for water birds including storks and gulls. The east of Mongolia is famous for its birds life, boasting lakes of storks and pelicans, while vultures can be seen at will across the country and species are rare as the Altai snowcock and the mute swan are still observed in the countryside.<br> More than 330 from 434 species of birds are migratory and the remaining 104 species inhabit Mongolia year-round. Approximately 50 species observed here occasionally.
Mongolian vegetation presents special features which have developed through time and because of local landscape forms, the environment and climate. Mongolia is a site of convergence with flora originating both in the Great Siberian Taiga and the central Asian steppe and desert.
Mongolia has acquired plant species from Manchuria in the east and from the Kazakhstan-Turan area in the west. The gradual transition from high mountain taiga, to mountain forest steppe and flat grassy plains, and on to semi-desert and true desert, offers features of the world's three basic vegetation regions. This is reflected in the change in precipitation and plant distribution, from foothills to the tops of mountain ranges in vertical belts. Mongolia has over 2,823 plant species, while central Siberia has 2,400 and Inner Mongolia has 2,176.
There are 845 species of medicinal plants; over 1,000 of fodder plants; 173 of food plants; 489 of ornamental plants; and 195 of other significant plants. Mongolia has 2,095 species of herbaceous plant and 348 species of woody and shrubby plants. These comprise 17 species of big trees; 40 species of low trees and gig shrub; 146 species of shrub; 48 species of sub-shrubs; 91 species of partial sub-shrubs; 6 species of fodder and herbaceous; 1,765 species of longevity plants; 330 species of one- and two-year vascular plants; 21 families of flat moss; 38 families of leafy moss; 53 families of lichen; 1,236 species and sub-species of algae; and 900 species of mushrooms. There are relic species from prehistoric desert, forests, tertiary lakes, savannahs and the Ice Age in particular, many native to Mongolia. There are about 150 endemic vascular and lower plants, such as stipa mongolorum; adonis mongolica; betula mongolica; atraphaxis bracteata; calligonum gobicum; nanophyton mongolicum; gymnocarpus przewalskii; silene mongolica; potaninia mongolica; chesneya mongolica; astragalus gobicus; oxytropis ulzii-chutagii; and armisia gobica.